Research on the stigma of disability and mental illness has grown exponentially; now is the time for a critical appraisal including some understanding of unintended consequences. The dodo bird effect is a phenomenon for social science that examines unintended consequences of research. Several will be reviewed in this lecture. (1) Decreasing stigma by merely changing the words oversimplifies the difficulty of anti-stigma efforts. (2) Education programs that contrast myths and facts of mental illness have limited effects. (3) Public service campaigns are also muted in any real impact. The lecture ends with perceptions of effective anti-stigma programs. These are contact-based that target specific groups (employers, landlords, and primary care providers) and meant to yield concrete change (employers who provide reasonable accommodations to people with disabilities on the work place).